Dating to the mid-15th Century in England – The ''Hornbook'' (also called a Crib Book) was a form of early Primer used to start educating Children in understanding he alphabet (for future reading). Unknown to the Commoner, The Hornbook was actually a small hand-held paddle made of wood. Horn (or transparent Mica), was imprinted with the Alphabet, normally arranged in vertical rows of (4). A Child could then be Proctored, using the Hornbook. Later, religious phrasing was incorporated (on other devices), which taught them Biblical verses.