The US Army of The Cumberland was originally named The Army of Ohio, and formed at the beginning of The American Civil War of 1861. The primary mission of The Army was to commence defensive and offensive operations against any Confederate Forces in what was termed The Western Theater of The War. This region for the purposes of The Union Army spanned The Ohio River Basin Southward into Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Texas and Arkansas. In 1862, it was renamed The Army of The Cumberland and numbered roughly around 120,000 effectives.
The Army participated in (6) major Civil War Campaigns, to include support of General William Sherman's moved against Atlanta in 1864. The Army's final commander was General Robert Anderson, who as a Major, defended Fort Sumter in 1861 (the start of The War).
Still in the field when Lee Surrendered the main Confederate Army in Virginia – The Army was moving towards Washington DC for The ''Grand Review'', when word of Abraham Lincoln's assassination came. The Army of The Cumberland mustered out under President Andrew Johnson's review of Forces. The Army listed 7,000 casualties for both it's first assignment as The Army of The Ohio and later The Cumberland between 1862 and 1865.