Formed under the authority of Union General and Occupier of the recently taken City of New Orleans, Louisiana, The 2nd Louisiana ''Native Guards'', was an Infantry Regiment of all African-American ex-Slaves. They were raised in 1862 and were the first all-Black Regiment which featured Black Officers. Traditionally, when Black American soldiers were allowed to serve later in The American Civil War, only White Officers could command (with Black NCOs allowed). General Butler was somewhat a ''revolutionary'' in his views and authorized only ''Line Officers'' (Captains and Lieutenants) to be Black (with Field Officers being White). The ''experiment was controversial to say the least for it's time. Butler also used The 2nd Louisiana to ''police'' The City of New Orleans – which caused great ''distress'' to the populace (no doubt done as a ''psychological warfare'' measure by Butler).
The Regiment was renamed in 1864 as The 2nd Regiment Corps. D' Afrique and used mostly to garrison several small Forts in both Louisiana and Mississippi. After General Butler was reassigned to The Army of The James in 1864, new regulations passed removing all Black Line Officers and reverting back to an All-White Command structure, yet again. The Regiment was mustered out of service in 1865 after the end of The War in 1865.