Dating to the 16th Century AD – Germany, The Wallerstein Codex was a manuscript which taught close quarters combat skills to Noblemen. Attention was paid to Longsword and Dagger usage. The skill of Grappling was also taught, as it was a popular martial arts component of late Medieval Warfare. The Codex (or Swordsmanship and Martial Arts Rules) also specified proper fighting techniques for Judicial Combat trials. As previously discussed, these ''legal duels'' used to determine ''innocence or guilt'' were a hallmark of German Law of the time. Few Codex included these ''techniques''.