While (other than The Medal of Honor) – The United States Army had no official Awards for Bravery or Heroism to issue to it’s Military at the start of The American Civil War of 1861. Many General Officers did however, design and create their own such Decorations of which they gave to their Junior Officers or others under their Command. One such General was Philip Kearny, Commanding General of The Union Army 2nd Corps. Financed by his own funding (Kearny was a wealthy Man) – the first of his so called “Kearny Crosses’’ were designed in 1862. Made of metal, the actual Award was a Maltese Cross design. This was attached to a Red Ribbon with a pin clasp. Although never officially adopted by The US Army, The “Kearny Cross” is still considered on of the oldest Awards for Heroism in The US Military. The Cross was also given to Civilian Nurses and related workers under The General’s Command. It was awarded to one of the first contributing Females to The Union War effort (a Vivandiere). Eventually even Enlisted Men of The 3rd Corps. were awarded The Cross. After 1865 (and The War’s end) – The Kearny Cross stopped being issued.