The idea of The Horde (as they were called), was created by Mongol Warchief Genghis Khan. It's tactical abilities and overpowering force was the driving spike for The Khan and his conquest of most of Asia (and beyond). Long since disbanded and ineffective, Khan's Grandson – Bantu attempted to resurrect them as “The Golden Horde” in 1236 (during a raid into Russia). Bantu led his Army from Turkistan into Russia, where he sacked and looted Town by Town. Even Moscow, Poland and Hungary fell to Bantu and his “Horde”. Russian Princes were forced to pay The Horde tribute, and Mongol Troops were placed in Russian Towns to enforce Horde Law. The Capitol of The Horde was in Saray (Lower Volga).Bantu's “Palace Tent” was as large as a castle.
With Bantu's death in 1255, his Brother (and successor), converted The Horde to Islam (mostly out of their contempt for Buddhist and Christian Mongols). Targeting Kubali Khan (and a Persian Cousin), most of the 13th Century was filled with civil war. A succession of Warchief's rose and were quickly assassinated by the next “claimant”. Ozberg (who commanded The Horde from 1313-1341), made a real attempt to organize The Horde and reclaim their territorial possessions in Russia. Some of this was achieved. With Ozberg's assassination, The Golden Horde split into a faction known as The White Horde. This split caused a civil war within The Horde itself. This was ended with Tamerlane's control of The Horde (1378). Still, the damage was done, and The Horde began to break into smaller factions (becoming more and more independent). The last true Horde battle was their attempt to retake Kulikovo (Russia) – in 1380. Badly beaten, it was the last “swan song” for The Horde.
By the 15th Century, most of the population of The Horde shifted into Kazan (and formed into States). With Saray still the “spiritual Capitol” of The Horde, in 1502, a Crimean Khan and Ottoman vassal – conquered and destroyed Saray (and any hope of a possible reunification of The Horde).