Developed and designed in the 1840s by Charles James, The James Gun was a bronze cast artillery piece that saw service in The American Civil War. The “James Theory” of artillery tubes involve a gradual smoothing and sloping of the barrel, to increase projectile deployment pressures (that often caused stress fractures in the barrels). Although bronze is a “soft” metal, his idea (along with a newer form of projectile) – saw some success on both sides of the war. Developed as 6 and 12-pound models, they saw service mostly in River Forts for defense. Some versions were developed for The Navy in larger calibers (24 to 84-pounders), with the higher ranging at 5,000 yards. As better made tubes and innovations were developed, The James Gun was discontinued for production (1863) – although existing guns saw service in limited use until the 1870s.