The Palantine Guard was a quasi-Military Force raised by Italian Pope Pius IX in 1850. Like other previously discussed ''Papal Forces'', The Palantine Guard was both a ''Peace Keeping'' Unit within The City of Rome as well as performing traditional Guard Duties within The Vatican. They were formed as a standard Infantry Formation. They did not operate a Mounted detachment, but did maintain a Band. As traditional, The Palantine were not paid for their Services. They were issued a ''basic set'' of Uniforms and equipment, as well as monthly payments meant to maintain their equipment.
The Palantine were unusual in that although they functioned as an Infantry Unit, they were not taught combat drill. During World War II, when German Soldiers ''occupied'' Rome (but did not occupy The Vatican – considered a ''separate Nation''), it was The Palantines who maintained control and protection of The Vatican. While they did not engage with The Germans, Mussolini's ''Black Shirts'' were in constant confrontation with them (no doubt spurred on by The Germans). At their height, The Guards numbered 2,000 Officers and Men. The Palantine Guard were formally disbanded in 1970, after over 100 years of service. However, their Corps. was allowed to be reformed into a charitable Group known as The association of Sts. Paul and George.