Born in 1207, Henry III had a long (and troubled) reign. The Son of King John (Lackland), Henry was but 9 years old when his father died. England was ruled by Regents (first William Marshal then Hubert de Burgh). Henry assumed his crown in 1232. Whatever happened to Henry's teachings as a boy- was lost on his ability to govern his Kingdom. He had little Administrative teachings and almost no formal military training. Henry hired “foreign advisers” to help him run England. This was looked upon poorly by many of his Council.
They felt these “men” (not being English), did not have England's interests at heart (and few knew more than Henry!)Henry foolishly raised taxes to pay his debts to The Papacy in Rome. This move caused English Barons to revolt against him (The First Baron's War). Relatively “contained”, Henry was forced to sign The Provisions of Oxford in 1258. This created a “ruling Council” of 15 Nobles (making Henry, in effect – a figurehead). Although Henry agreed, he soon renounced The Provision. Another War ensued (The Second Baron's War).
Henry's Brother-In-Law (Simon de Montfort), raised an Army against him. Henry was captured at The Battle of Lewes (1264) and imprisoned (he would die there and de Montfort will die in battle the following year). During this time, the “vacant” crown fell to Henry's much more able son – Edward I. He raised his own Army and defeated The Baron's by 1266. Edward still adopted The Provisions.