A joint effort of German and French Research & development, The MIM-115 ''Roland'' Project began in 1963. The purpose of The ''Roland'' was to develop a viable Missile to attack Soviet ''high-value'' airfields from Mobile or Stationary Launching Platforms. The Missile was to be an ''all-weather'' Munition. Initial field testing began in 1968, but cost overruns proved the major obstacle to The ''Roland''. Despite this, Germany fielded MIM-115 Batteries in 1978 with France following in 1981. (17) Missile variants were produced, with 1989 being the last year ''Roland'' was deployed (exported). The MIM-115 weighed 140-pounds and was 12-feet in length. They were powered by a dual booster system (solid fueled). Rated airspeed was Mach 1.6. Wing stabilization was used in flight. The MIM-115 had an 8,000-meter operational range.