Possibly the second most brutal form of Roman Military punishments, was that of Fustuarium. It's use dates from The Early Republic Period forward. The process involved punishing Cowardice or an outward refusal to follow orders in battle. The selected Soldier waso placed before his Unit, and stripped of all possessions of his profession as a Soldier. Members of his Unit were selected next, and given 3 to 4-foot hardened wooden clubs (some accounts cite metal bats). Encircling the victim - and at the command of an Officer, the victim was beaten to death. Great care was taken as to NOT batter the head, so as to prolong the pain and suffering inflicted. Again, this punishment was performed in front of assembled Soldiers to reinforce the fate that awaited them if they "failed" to perform adequately in combat.