During The California Gold Rush of 1849, many citizens from all over America (and The World), flocked to the hills of Northern California (Sutter's Mill), in the attempt to make their fortunes. One such settlement, were members of “The Rough and Ready” Militia. They were a group of ex-soldiers turned Miners from Wisconsin. The Militia Unit had been commanded by then General (and future President) Zachary Taylor (nicknamed Old Rough and Ready) – and served with him during The Mexican War (1846-48). A recent Tax measure on alcohol and mining equipment caused the Militia to “secede” from the State of California and The US. Declaring their new “Great Republic”, they remained in secession for 1 year. The “Great Republic” re-voted themselves back into The Union. The known flag used was a dark blue field with white lettering reading “THE GREAT REPUBLIC OF ROUGH AND READY” (an affixed banner scroll held ROUGH AND READY in red lettering').