From Medieval Italy, The Doge was an elected Chief of State (similar to a Lord). They were primarily Rulers of Italian City-States. These Regions were called “Crowned Republics”. In England, The Doge was similar to a Duke. The Doge was identified by the wearing a a “curved, Conical Hat” called a “Corno Ducale”. First seen in in 1170, the title was not used much by the 18th Century.