With European trade and social contacts, China began to borrow Armor protection ideas. By the 17th through early 19th Centuries, The Chinese began to use Brigandine Armor (popular in Europe at the time). These were heavy canvas and leather garments reinforced with small steel plates (riveted in place). Called Dingija, it became the primary form of protection (replacing the heavier Mountain and Component types). Often matching heavy leather Shoulder pads were attached. Turban-style Helmets were popular for their comfort and level of protection. Although much lighter, Dingija did not stop bullets (now the predominate force on Chinese battlefields).