''Whitecapping'' was a particularly brutal practice, traced to America and the 1830s - within The State of Indiana, Groups of vigilante's (all Caucasian), began to form for the purposes of bringing ''justice'' to those Men who abused Their wives and children. They operated against the established Law and often ''ended'' Their ''actions'' with the death (by hanging) – of The Accused. By the 1870s, many of These Groups would be very much ''active'', but with a ''new adversary'' – Black Americans. Noted for Members wearing a ''White Cap'' on Their head (with Their attacks being referred to as ''Whitecapping'). They were unlike the infamous ''White Knights of The Klu Klux Klan'' in The Southern portions of America, in that They did not hide their identity. Traditionally, The White Caps were against Black Americas (mostly former now freed Slaves), from opening and maintaining businesses in Indiana. In sort, The White Caps were not so interested in ''Color or Race'', but the economic disparity they felt such an influx of Black Owned Businesses would cause. After several attempts at intimidation against a selected Black owned Business (fire, theft etc.), some White Caps began to resort to Lynching (hanging). A ''crack down'' by State Authorities in the 1890s broke most White Cap Groups up, but many simply were absorbed into the more radical Racial Hate Groups beginning to take hold during the turn of The Century (19th-20th).